These are Medium or Long Term debt instruments issued by Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs). The term usually denotes bonds issued by the central PSUs (i.e. PSUs funded by and under the administrative control of the Government of India). Most of the PSU Bonds are sold on Private Placement Basis to the targeted investors at market determined interest rates. Often investment bankers are roped in as arrangers to this issue. PSU Bonds are issued in demat form. In order to attract the investors and increase liquidity, issuers get their bonds rated by rating agencies like CRISIL, ICRA, CARE, etc. Some of the issues may be guaranteed by Central / State Government enabling them to get a better rating. The bonds may carry call / put option.